Transshipment in seaports is one of the most important strategic directions in the Ukrainian economy. At the same time, the lion's share of the turnover of export and import cargo falls on the port terminals located in Yuzhny, Nikolaev, Odessa, Chornomorsk and Mariupol. According to statistics from the Administration of the Seaports of Ukraine (USPA) for January-October 2020, these transshipment complexes handled 120.96 million tons of cargo. Those. 91.5% of the total in the country.
Classification of processed goods. Bulk or overloaded in bulk. General and general cargo
Commercial transshipment in the ports of USPA member enterprises over the past year in 2020 brought a total income of UAH 7.375 billion. Of these, the organizations' net profit amounted to UAH 2.65 billion, more than UAH 3.6 billion was transferred to the state budget and trust funds. T. about. Ukrainian seaports continue to be one of the key economic players in the country. Due to the systemic modernization of the berths and the increase in technical capacities, a stable increase in the volume of cargo transshipment through sea terminals is observed. As a result, industrial ports every year make a significant contribution to the development of foreign trade and commercial infrastructure of the country.
Classification of processed goods
At the moment, transshipment in the port provides handling of the following types of cargo: overloaded in bulk (in bulk), general or piece cargo, liquid cargo. According to the type of cargo, not only a vessel with the necessary technical capabilities is selected, but also a transshipment area. Let's take a closer look at how port transshipment is organized, in the case of working with each type of cargo.
Loose or overloaded in bulkOften these are raw materials for further processing. Cargo discharged in bulk includes:
- cereals (sunflower seeds, cereals and legumes, as well as cake and meal);
- ores (mainly iron and manganese)
- mineral cargo (fertilizers, salt, slag)
- mineral fertilizers and salts (potassium and nitrogen, phosphates, apatites, table salt);
- building materials (sand, clay, gravel, crushed stone, pebbles, crushed granite)
- solid fuel materials (coal, peat, bitumen);
- waste from logging and woodworking (wood chips, shavings, branch trimmings).
1) Hygroscopicity. The ability of substances to absorb moisture from the air. Excessive moisture in bulk material causes deterioration of food products and some mineral powders (gypsum, sulfates, lime flour). Freezing of a part of the dump of raw materials is also fraught with dangerous list of the vessel.
When working with dry building mixtures, mineral powders and grain, the moisture content in the specific weight of the product is strictly standardized. For example, for sea transshipment in the port of gypsum, cement and their mixtures, a mass fraction of moisture up to 1% is recommended. In winter - no more than 4%. For export it is not allowed to transship grain with moisture content over 11-14%.
2) Granulometric composition. It characterizes the ratio of particles with different fraction sizes. The smaller the outer diameter of the grains, the higher the indicators of caking and freezing of the cargo. Particle size distribution can deteriorate due to crushing and abrasion of the bulk product during mechanical transfer. This is important to consider when choosing the most gentle method of shipping and storage.
3) Traceability.Determines how mobile the particles of bulk material remain relative to each other when stored in dumps. High caking is typical for substances with fraction sizes starting from 1 m. Together with high hygroscopicity and a tendency to freezing, caking can seriously degrade the productivity of the PRR. Based on the data from the tables, taking into account the density and coefficients of external friction, the optimal height and angle of the slope for the dump are selected, and the moisture indicator is normalized. This prevents unwanted compaction of the transported cargo.
General and general cargo
The category unites products, whose transshipment and shipment by sea is carried out in the form of palletized, packed in containers or stored in containers cargo, as well as stacked. The overwhelming majority of products with a high degree of processing and market value are transported in this way. Transshipment enterprises in the ports of Ukraine offer services for the handling of general cargo, completed in:
- Stacks and packages. They are used to store and transport logs, linear products made of wood (timber, board), rolled metal.
- Pallets. They place building mixtures and chemical products in bags, non-food products in boxes and other containers. Transportation of perishable goods on pallets is carried out in containers with refrigeration units or in the hold of refrigerated ships.
- Big Run. Loose cargo, sensitive to moisture, is increasingly being transshipped in them. This method allows you to protect the workers of the working site and the ship's crew from excessive dust formation. It is also preferable to the transshipment of cargo in bulk if you need to store easily caking cargo for a long time, spend or sell them in relatively small volumes.
TTG "Forward": transshipment in the port of Ukraine with full paperworkYou can entrust the team of professionals of TTG "Forward" with the responsibilities for the execution of contracts for the charter of the vessel, the development of a technological chart of loading operations and intra-port forwarding of goods. The Forward marine terminal is located in the water area of the port of Chornomorsk and is capable of providing annual transshipment of grain and other bulk cargo in the amount of up to 7 million tons.
For the processing of large consignments of bulk cargo, a railway line No. 10 from the Chornomorsk-Port station has been opened on the territory of the complex , where up to 14 wagons can be delivered for unloading. Materials in big bags are placed on a temporary storage area adjacent to the railway tracks and then transported to closed warehouses. For transshipment of grain in bulk, there is a park of specialized silos on the territory.
In addition to a developed internal infrastructure for handling bulk and general cargo, our organization has a staff of specialists in sea freight. We will also help you connect contractors to perform:
- ship agency services;
- intra-port forwarding;
- customs clearance;
- sanitary and epidemiological control.