Today, both imports and exports play a large role in the country's economy, thanks to which many industries not only keep afloat, but also develop quite successfully. One of them, by right, is the transport industry of shipping by ships, with many related services, without which it is difficult to imagine this process.
One of the most important tasks during cargo transportation is transshipment, the further success of goods transportation depends on the speed and quality of which. Quite often, owners of goods related to the construction industry resort to such services.
The favorites among the building materials that can be handled are bulk cargo.
Transshipment of cement: process components and featuresIt should be noted that cement is an irreplaceable component of any construction project, and Ukraine is rather rich in deposits of mineral raw materials components of this product, unlike Europe, whose raw material base in this segment has been exhausted.
Therefore, many countries purchase this product from Ukraine, while the transportation process without fail involves the transshipment of cement, as its component.
The main stages of cement transshipment:
- acceptance of bulk materials by road or rail, depending on the marginal capacity and location;
- shipment of cement to an indoor warehouse, due to the inability to store this product on open sites;
- loading bulk cargo onto a carrier ship, subject to suitable weather conditions, due to the specifics of the cargo;
- the process of customs clearance of goods;
- customs check by brokers;
- obligatory execution of the entire number of necessary export-import documents, in accordance with the regulations of the country and neighboring countries;
- accompaniment of cement transshipment in port to a ship;
- preparation of reporting documents and other financial documents.
Product specificsCement, as a product of the construction industry, depends on the presence of limestone and clay quarries that are components of this product at specialized enterprises. By obtaining the smallest fraction of gypsum and clinker, the aforementioned product can be easily obtained.
Domestic cement is quite high quality, due to which it is valued on the world market and meets many international standards.
Storage conditions for cement in the portThe Black Sea coastal zone has a sufficient number of existing and many sites for the construction of cement storage and transshipment terminals planned for construction. Of great importance is the geographical location of the port, its deep water, the pace of development of its infrastructure, the availability of engineering transport communications.
Transportation of cement to the transshipment areaGiven the geographical conditions of the cement manufacturing plant, the customer selects the most acceptable conditions for the transportation of goods. Often these are transport services of automobiles, railways or combined, including transport services of river ports, trucks and trains.
Cement transshipmentAfter transporting this bulk cargo to the port’s cement terminal, its reception and, of course, shipping capacity are estimated to determine the exact amount of payment for services.
Estimated transshipment costThe financial performance of cement transshipment in most cases is about 5 - 10% of the cost of goods in the domestic domestic market. Therefore, the average indicators of transshipment include the price of the cargo itself, as well as depreciation, the cost of containers and the work of specialists.
Port Storage Requirements for Cement StorageThe main, among the environmental protection conditions when storing such bulk cargo as cement in the port’s warehouses, is a mechanism for cleaning the dusty component of cement from air and equipment. Therefore, first of all, warehouses should have excellent aspiration and sealing of the joints of the room.
In addition to warehouses, the security of port cranes also plays an important role in the transshipment of cement, as bulk goods forming a huge amount of dust. Port cranes with a closed hydraulic system perfectly satisfy these conditions.
Environmental issueSuch a process as cement transshipment is accompanied by atmospheric emissions in the form of dust, therefore, the requirements for ensuring maximum permissible standards for these emissions are imposed on operators of marine terminals.
There are norms that regulate the maximum emissions of particulate matter into the atmosphere, which not only settle in the nearby territory, water resources, but also pose a threat to human lives, flora and fauna.
Therefore, the state of the ecological environment in nearby port cities often not only does not comply with sanitary standards, but also threatens further normal functioning.
Minimization of harmful emissions during transshipmentTo make the process of cement transshipment in the port safer, you must adhere to the following rules:
- to carry out technological measures that involve optimization of transshipment processes and the correct location of production equipment;
- organization of a satisfactory process of aspiration and ventilation of the premises;
- sufficient air humidification and organization of dust removal;
- development of technological maps of cement transshipment in the most optimal way, to prevent excessive dust formation, and also, taking into account the prevailing wind direction towards residential areas and the sea.
Equipment used for transshipment of goods
- hydraulic loaders are an innovative material handling equipment that perfectly copes not only with cement transshipment, but also with various lumber and metal structures. The engines of these loaders are usually diesel or electric. Hydraulic loaders perfectly provide all conditions for transshipment of cement, due to the possibility of overloading both in big bags and in other containers;
- attachments, a vivid example of which are buckets for loading cement with sufficient capacity;
- telescopic loaders;
- pneumatic vehicles;
- the use of machines of a combined type, thanks to which it is possible to carry out both unloading and loading with such bulk goods, in particular, as cement.
The process of transshipment of cement and its main operationsThe main actions that accompany the transshipment of cement are loading and unloading operations, what does each of them represent.
Cement loading using ship-loading machines and equipment. Thanks to the use of these forklifts, the environmental impact of harmful factors is minimized, since dust collectors and aspiration in this case operate at full capacity.
During the process of cement transshipment, the goods are weighed in the stream, the cargo during transportation by means of a covering tape is perfectly protected from atmospheric precipitation.
Types of ship loading machines:
- mobile wheeled modifications, if conditions allow;
- stationary type of action, without the possibility of movement;
- mobile loaders on the rail.
Machines for unloading ships during the transshipment of cementIf it is necessary to unload cement in a short time, it is rational and quite effective to use ship-unloading machines in pneumatic operation. Initially, as a rule, cement is transported from the hold of the ship to the unloading unit.
The next step in this process is the transfer of bulk cargo to the vehicle, while it is possible to weigh without interrupting other functions.
As a rule, unloaders are equipped not only with remote control from the berth of the vessel, a dosimeter from overloads, excellent suction and dust traps, as well as rotary cultivators that allow you to extract and transport cement without loss of flowability.
Options and modifications of unloading equipment:
- стационарное несъемное оборудование, ярким примером которого является швартовани или установленные машины, которые одинаково хорошо выполняют свои функции, отличаются только условиями выгрузки;
- корабельные выгрузчики модификации железнодорожного транспорта мобильного типа с последующей помощью с поездами;
- мобильные разгрузочные машины с колесной базой.