Today, export of mineral fertilizers is developing quite dynamically against the background of general cargo turnover in Ukraine. This process is inextricably linked with the handling of nitrogen fertilizers and the handling of nitrate in the seaports of Ukraine.
It should be noted that the directions of sea export are growing much faster than land, and this industry has a constant and dynamic growth.
Marine Terminal Throughput IndicatorsThe criteria for the capacity of sea terminals is the structure of cargo flow, its uninterrupted operation and the possibility of approaching transport, both sea and participating in the transshipment of goods.
In order for the transshipment process to run smoothly, there must be a balance of demand and terminal capacity.
The composition of the fertilizer transshipment process:
- packaging and further loading of goods;
- transportation of mineral fertilizers to the port;
- storage of goods in the port, if necessary;
- sending cargo to the customer.
Components of the process of filling and loading fertilizersFirst of all, it is necessary to properly pack ready-made mineral fertilizers by type or composition. Then loading operations are carried out for further transportation to the port.
Before transporting fertilizers, they must be pretreated with chemical protection agents. This process is carried out in connection with the specifics of the interaction of mineral fertilizers with water, the reaction of which leads to damage to the goods.
Delivery of mineral fertilizers to the portA prerequisite for the transportation of any fertilizer to the port territory is a clear tracking and tracking of goods. Mineral fertilizers, getting into reloading terminals, are further packed. Further, on the territory of the port, goods are weighed with packaging and without packaging, then customs documentation is executed.
Fertilizer storage at port and despatchWhen storing cargo in the port, first of all, it is necessary to comply with the conditions specified by the manufacturer. Mineral fertilizers are usually stored in port warehouses for several days before dispatch, during the preparation of customs documentation for the goods.
What are mineral fertilizers?
To understand the composition and properties of mineral fertilizers, it is necessary to turn to chemical terminology, according to which:
mineral fertilizers are inorganic compounds that contain nutrients that are useful and necessary for all plants, which increase the vitality and productivity of plants.
Nitrogen, in turn, is a vital element and the basis of all living things, macro- and microorganisms, including. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers increase the level of nitrogen in the plant, contribute to the compaction of the root system and the entire plant as a whole.
Mineral nitrogen fertilizers differ from each other in the percentage of nitrogen in them.
Classification of nitrogen fertilizers:
- nitrate is a saltpeter of calcium or sodium nature;
- ammonium - containing ammonium in its composition;
- ammonium nitrate is a group of mineral fertilizers that combines nitrate and ammonium properties;
- an amide group of fertilizers, urea is a striking example. An important feature of this type of fertilizer is the presence of phosphorus and potassium in the composition;
- liquid ammonia fertilizers.
Advantages of nitrogen fertilizers:
- plant nutrition useful for the growth of any plant amino acids;
- accelerating the development and growth of the vegetative system of the plant (starting from the root system, and ending with leaves);
- strengthening and activation of the general condition of the soil and its microflora;
- increase in saturation of soil with minerals;
- an increase in the composition of soil elements such as carbon and nitrogen;
- acceleration of plant regenerative processes;
- increase in productivity.
Saltpeter and its varieties
Nitrate is urea that contains a large amount of nitrogen. There are many types of this mineral fertilizer, the most common are its ammonia, calcium and sodium varieties.
Transshipment of mineral fertilizersOne of the most budgetary ways of exporting mineral fertilizers is to transport them in bulk. Often, fertilizers are transported in a single component, implying the further preparation of complex fertilizer options.
It should be noted that most of the domestic transportation of various fertilizers by ships is humanitarian aid to less developed or needy countries.
Features of transshipment of mineral fertilizers
Mineral fertilizers are a rather specific cargo that requires special storage conditions, therefore not every port in its arsenal has warehouses that satisfy such requirements.
Fertilizer containersWhen transshipment of bulk mineral fertilizers, for example, nitrate or its one-component nitrogen species, big bags are a fairly popular type of packaging. These bags satisfy all conditions for durability, durability, carrying capacity and environmental friendliness of packaging. In addition, they are presented in a wide range.
Foreign examples of terminals for transshipment of mineral fertilizers
Domestic terminals and warehouses are somewhat different from their foreign counterparts in length, modification, equipment and equipment.
Types of covered warehouses for storing nitrate and other fertilizers:
- tent modifications of arched structure warehouses that allow storing at the same time two or more types of mineral fertilizers;
- dome-type warehouses (design "geodesic dome", characterized by its stunning efficiency).
The neighboring countries and the EU countries are successfully using packaging such as big bags when loading and reloading mineral fertilizers. It was they who became indispensable in the transportation of large batches of nitrate and nitrogen fertilizers having a dry and loose consistency.
Mineral transportation and transshipment details
The initial transportation of mineral fertilizers to the port territory can be carried out both by road and by rail. In the practice of rail transportation, quite often in modern times, closed wagons are used, called mineral wagons.
Such compositions do not require additional packaging, they are loaded in bulk. The design features of the car allow you to load fertilizers using mechanisms through special hatches located on the roof.
Types of fertilizer handling equipmentThe most common loaders for cargo in the form of mineral fertilizers are stationary machines and mobile-type equipment.
Due to its mobility, this equipment allows you to unload mineral carriers, using the equipment under the hatches for unloading, that is, to carry out unloading by gravity.
If fertilizers have a granular structure, to prevent its destruction, use belt conveyor equipment. In the absence of a structure of this type, pneumatic vacuum pumps or screw type conveyors are widely used.
The key to successful transshipment of fertilizersTo avoid long downtime, it is necessary to clearly, harmoniously and on time to prepare the transshipment equipment (cranes or other loaders). In addition, it is necessary to attract competent logisticians to calculate the correct and most profitable route.
Today, you can easily get the most complete range of transport and transshipment services regarding any mineral fertilizers.
Advantages of handling mineral fertilizers
The key to success is the correct and timely organization of storage and transportation. Proximity to port terminals guarantees the customer fast and accurate cargo transportation.
In addition, fertilizer transshipment can be carried out in a direct way, without transit storage of mineral fertilizers at the terminals or warehouses of the port. Further packaging of fertilizers in big bags can be carried out directly from train cars.