Today, a rather popular area of activity of companies in the transport and forwarding industry is loading and unloading operations (LUO). These cargo operations are carried out with each cargo before further transportation.
Cargo transshipment: what is it?In order to understand how loading works take place, it is necessary to understand the corresponding terminology.
Cargo transshipment is the direct unloading of cargo from a vehicle to the port terminal and its further loading onto rail or road transport, followed by removal from the port territory or loading onto a ship.
Embodiments of such worksDepending on a number of factors, which include the design features of the vessel, the location of warehouses, handling facilities and the type of cargo, the most acceptable option for performing cargo operations is selected.
Schemes and options:
- A direct option, according to which, the transshipment of goods in the port can be performed from one type of vehicle to a ship, for example, from a train to a ship or conversely.
- The warehouse option implies unloading the goods to the port warehouses, and then to vehicles or in the opposite sequence.
The ratio of the cargo processed according to the direct option to the total amount is considered to be the transit coefficient, on which the efficiency of the operations performed depends. The warehouse option is the most advantageous and quite effective when transporting goods through the buffer warehouse. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the goods, prepared for the LUO, remain in the warehouse near the berth. Then, before direct loading, the cargo is sent to the ports for loading onto the ship.
Efficient use of resources and timeTo optimize and speed up the process of handling ships in the port, as well as to rationally use labor and transport resources, it is necessary to perform a certain algorithm of actions.
The first point of actions sequence will be the development of technological maps, as an integral part of the executive documentation. To answer the question "What is the transshipment of cargoes", you just need to open a technological map, according to which the path, algorithm and list of operations for the transportation and movement of goods are established.
Transshipment of cargo in seaports and its components:
- drawing up a plan and scheme for the movement of cargo;
- preparation for moving cargo;
- movement of cargo;
- stowage of goods, according to its size and dimensions.
A detailed transshipment plan includes the following stages:
- coordination of the schedule for the delivery of goods;
- organization of works on acceptance, accumulation of goods in specialized warehouses and subsequent storage;
- compliance with the entire range of loading operations according to one of the options;
- mandatory control of the quality of goods, as well as their quantitative indicators;
- registration of customs documentation, including of a declarative nature;
- provision of cargo documentation (bills of lading, manifestos, navigator's and other receipts);
- registration of all kinds of certificates for a product, depending on its type.
The financial part of the processesThe cost of the LUO depends on many factors that affect the total amount. The financial components depend on the estimated calculation and determination of the average number of planned costs for processing 1 ton of goods, the standard calculation for this weight of the cargo and measures to reduce the cost of these works.
The predominant part among the costs of loading and unloading works is occupied by the costs of salaries of employees involved in the process. In turn, such factors as depreciation, expenses for fuel, electricity, repairs, administrative purposes and other incidental costs also affect the remuneration of personnel.
Components of loading and unloading works:
- Works on acceptance and further processing of ships or barges in the port;
- Sorting by type (oversized, loose or piece);
- Full support of such a process as loading and unloading at the port;
- Services for transshipment of goods from any type of transport to a ship or conversely;
- Warehousing and storage of goods or cargo in warehouses or open areas;
- Cargo safety control;
- Providing expert advice on any issues related to the LUO.
Advantages of loading and unloading at the port:
- Availability of its own network of cargo port or seaport sites;
- Modernized modern equipment, regardless of the place of execution of the LUO. The port of Odessa and many other ports of the Ukrainian system can be proud of modern portal cranes, cranes on a pontoon system of a wide range of lifting capacities, progressive construction equipment and comfortable berth walls;
- Many open and closed warehouses for any cargo, including and overall.
To understand the need to draw up this most important part of the executive documentation, you can consider the entire chronology of such a process as the transshipment of cargo "port - warehouse - hold", but first it is worth turning to technical terminology.
The necessity of drawing up a technological map
The technological map is an executive document, which is provided by the contractor and contains the following data:
- a brief description and description of the methods of cargo handling;
- data on the number and grouping of dockers and other handling equipment;
- location of cranes and other transport equipment;
- instructions on labor protection for the implementation of the LUO;
Due to the impossibility of premature planning and taking into account all conditions and operations, standard technological maps are initially developed, which in fact are corrected and finalized.
After development, the technological map is approved by the head of the port in which the work is performed.
Who is allowed to perform workOnly men over 18 years of age who have successfully passed a medical examination and have a corresponding certificate are allowed to carry out loading and unloading operations. Otherwise, a candidate who does not meet these requirements will not be admitted to the LUO. Odessa, for example, as one of the main port cities of Ukraine, has quite a lot of specialists in a specific profile on the labor market.
The admission of workers to carry out loading work one-time (no more than 1 month) is allowed only after successful completion of instructions and training. In addition, each specialist is certainly provided with special work clothes, footwear and protective equipment, in accordance with the current regulations.
If a specialist performs work on a temporary basis, that is, no more than 1 month, he is prohibited from reloading the following types of goods:
- metal rolling, pipes;
- explosive, and others that may cause harm to the health, life of people or property of the port;
- cylinders with any gases;
The transport and forwarding industry is quite developed in the coastal regions of Ukraine and it is improving every year, gaining momentum, creating competition not only in the domestic but also in the foreign market. The top three favorites include Mariupol, Odessa and Yuzhne.
Odessa is the undisputed leader in the popularity of transportation among port cities, which for many years has been performing all freight forwarding and loading and unloading operations. None of the port cities of Ukraine can compare with it in terms of the scale of transportation.