Transshipment of goods. Detailed Guidelines for PRR

Детальный гайдлайн по перевалке грузов, особенностям видам и типам. Как выбрать и на что обратить внимание.

Выполняя поставку продукции каждый предприниматель выбирает наиболее удобный способ транспортировки, который включает погрузо разгрузочные работы. Одним из наиболее популярных вариантов есть перевалка грузов, которая выполняется в морских портах.

The scope of business directly depends on the supply of goods, equipment and other goods. When delivering products, each entrepreneur chooses the most convenient method of transportation, which includes loading and unloading. One of the most popular options is cargo transshipment, which is carried out in seaports.

What do loading and unloading operations consist of?

• Inspection, acceptance of goods, sorting by carrying capacity, selection by size and other parameters.
• Maintenance of loading and unloading operations (hereinafter referred to as pr).
• Transhipment from sea vessels to road or rail.
• Storage of goods, revision of the condition and quantitative indicators of the cargo.

How is transshipment of goods documented?

In the port of the coastal zone, for the convenience of the customer, services are provided for the transshipment of transported goods. Cargo transshipment in seaports is carried out only with the availability of detailed documentation, which consists of technological maps, temporary transshipment instructions, customs declarations, acts of cargo inspection, sampling, and expert opinions.

Infrastructure of seaports of Ukraine

Among the ports of the Black Sea coast, loading and unloading is a rather demanded service, which is resorted to by all suppliers and customers of bulky goods or cargo with non-standard parameters. The main ports in our country that provide services prr: Odessa, Nikolaev, Illichivsk. These ports have a certain specialization, focused on bulk goods without grain, as well as bulk products. 
On the territory of Ukraine there are also ports with less transshipment capacity, the main examples are Skadovsky, Kherson and Izmail ports. 

Briefly about the main thing

Cargo transshipment, what is it? For the first time faced with this industry, each 
person thinks about a similar issue. The answer, which is quite simple, is loading and unloading at the port. Each product, regardless of size, undergoes a certain algorithm of actions, the main place among which is loading and unloading.

Financial side

An important criterion when choosing a company for the transportation of goods is the cost of prr, which depends on such factors as weight, type of packaging, hazard class of the goods, time, etc. The financial component is also affected by the special requirements of the owner, geographical location, the availability of forwarding support, or only loading and unloading. Odessa, among the port cities of Ukraine, is a leader in the acceptance of the quantity of goods.

Freight forwarding services

No less important procedure than transshipment is freight forwarding. Its structure is as follows:
  •  delivery of overall goods to the port agreed by the customer;
  •  Documentation of the transaction;
  •  customs control and registration;
  • obtaining samples, performing laboratory tests;
  •  direct transshipment of cargo.
The port, to which goods and cargo are transported, provides not only forwarding services, but also provides the ability to store, including long-term. 

How to choose a port for cargo transportation?

In order to select a port through which cargo will be loaded and transported, it is necessary to be guided not by the territorial and geographical factor, but by the cargo specialization of the port. Loading and unloading in the port depends on the parameters and characteristics of the port itself, namely the length and width of the berths, depth, etc. 
In addition to the parameters of the berths, each port has its own cargo specialization and focus. The most common types are bulk, bulk, grain, general, forest cargo, etc. 

What is cargo transshipment? How to organize it right?

In order for the transshipment to be organized technically correctly, it is necessary to provide the following information when registering the cargo:
  •  reliable data of the enterprise, individual, as well as contact information of the recipient;
  •  product name, its composition;
  •  volumetric characteristics and total weight;
  •  the full size of the lot that is transported by the ship;
  •  characteristics and type of packaging;
  •  the number of seats in a particular party, as well as the weight of each of the seats;
  •  specific volume of loading;
  •  the exact hazard class of the transported goods (flash point);
  •  cargo transportation period;
  •  certain regulatory or technical conditions under which transshipment of goods in the port should occur;
  •  special conditions

The main components of the transshipment procedure

Regardless of the geographical location of the cargo in the port and the implementation of the project (port of Odessa, Nikolaev, or Illichivsk), the consignment is subsequently moved by any of the available modes of transport. The transshipment procedure has the following algorithm of actions:
  1.  selection according to the parameters of the most suitable packaging option (packaging);
  2.  packaging of goods or consignments;
  3.  actions for reliable fixing and securing the cargo inside the container;
  4.  ensuring at the proper level of unloading of goods and their delivery to the next vehicle (wagon or car body).

Transshipment packaging

The most popular type of containers for transportation, storage of goods in Ukrainian ports is big-run. Transshipment of cargo in seaports is carried out in soft containers made of flexible material. Big-bags are intended for cargo of loose consistency. The latter have proven themselves during the transportation of plastic granules, sand, grain, a variety of chemicals and fertilizers. The size of such a bag is designed for one ton of material, despite its low weight (5-7 kg). 
There are many models and variations of big bags. Options with one, two or four handles are used. There are models reinforced with an additional liner, additional valves and a variety of load capacities. Newer models are equipped with partitions and additional handling devices.

The provision of additional services

The accompanying transshipment of freight operations, which can be additionally obtained at the port, are: separation, fumigation, shaving, port agent service.
  • The separation of goods consists in separating the necessary batch from the rest of the cargo without marriage and re-grading.
  • Fumigation of grain cargo during transshipment and transportation consists in processing the goods with special insecticides to control insects for the complete preservation of the transported grain crops.
  • Shtivka cargo is carried out during prr and transportation to level and prevent damage to the goods and change its geometric characteristics.
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